Thrombus in Left Popliteal Artery

Patient presented with acute onset of pain in his left lower extremity

Discussion

Rapid molecular diagnostics such as T2MR technology may help with prognosis of invasive candidiasis. The T2Candida Panel was utilized upon follow up to assess the clearance of candidemia along with clinical symptoms.

Presentation

A 45-year-old man with an extensive history of bicuspid aortic valve disease, aortic valve replacement and multiple cases of bacterial endocarditis was treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics and was placed on chronic suppression with amoxicillin 500 mg orally three times per day. He presented with acute onset of pain in his left lower extremity and was diagnosed with a thrombus in his left popliteal artery.  

Evaluation and Treatment Decision

Surgical Interventions: Left embolectomy with pathology revealing a thrombus with calcification and multiple fungal forms with pseudohyphae, which grew Candida parapsilosis, along with blood cultures and T2Candida Panel positive for Candida parapsilosis. Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) revealed trace aortic regurgitation and mild mitral regurgitation.

Initial Antifungal Regimen: Micafungin 150 mg IV daily PLUS fluconazole 600 mg (6 mg/kg) IV daily was started for suspected prosthetic valve endocarditis.

Additional Culture Data and Modified Antifungal Regimen: Blood cultures remained positive for C. parapsilosis after 14 days of antifungal treatment. Treatment was changed to liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg/kg IV daily, flucytosine 2500 mg orally every six hours and fluconazole 400 mg orally daily. All subsequent blood cultures were negative. Due to an episode of acute renal failure, his regimen was finally changed to micafungin 150 mg IV daily and flucytosine 2500 mg PO every 8 hours.

Follow-up Tomography/Angiography: Scan revealed activity on the aortic leaflets and right lateral wall of the ascending aorta three weeks after starting antifungal treatment.

Second T2Candida Panel Result and Modified Antifungal Regimen: T2Candida Panel completed two months after starting antifungal treatment remained positive for C. parapsilosis while blood cultures remained negative. The regimen was narrowed down to flucytosine 2500 mg orally every eight hours and fluconazole 400 mg orally daily. Repeat T2Candida Panel became negative five months after starting antifungal treatment.

Discharge and Follow-Up Plan: The patient was stable for one year but decided to discontinue his flucytosine, fluconazole, and amoxicillin. He developed low-grade fevers and repeat blood cultures were negative for bacteria but grew C. parapsilosisas did a follow-up T2Candida Panel. The patient was restarted on liposomal amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole. Blood cultures became negative, and the T2Candida Panel was negative after two weeks of antifungal treatment. TEE was unchanged and did not reveal any vegetations. Liposomal amphotericin B was discontinued after six weeks, and the patient remains stable on flucytosine and fluconazole.

Decision making based on T2Candida Result

The T2Candida Panel was used to assess for the presence of disease and the continuation of antifungal therapy, despite negative blood cultures.

 

Citation: Ahuja T, Fong K, Louie E. Combination antifungal therapy for treatment of Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis and utility of T2Candida Panel®: A case series. IDCases. 2019;15:e00525.  

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